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肌肉抽筋的种类和处理方法

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我们中的很多人在一生中可能都经历过肌肉抽筋。其带来的疼痛是难以忘记,也肯定不希望再发生的。
Many of us at some point in our life have probably experienced a muscle cramp. The pain that it brings is something that isn't forgotten, and is something a person does not want to experience again.

我们中的很多人在一生中可能都经历过肌肉抽筋。其带来的疼痛是难以忘记,也肯定不希望再发生的。

Most people do not understand what a muscle cramp is, let alone understand why it happens and how to prevent them. This article will give you all the information you need to fully understand muscle cramps.

多数人不明白什么是肌肉抽筋,那就让我们来了解为什么会出现这个现象并如何避免其发生。这篇文章会让你完全了解肌肉抽筋的情况。

What Is A Cramp?

什么是肌肉抽筋?

A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. Muscle cramps normally last from a few seconds to up to fifteen minutes. On rare occurrences they can last longer than fifteen minutes. A cramp can persist numerous times until it eventually goes away. Cramps can effect the muscles differently - for instance it can affect a group of muscles, a single muscle, or even a specific part of a muscle.

肌肉抽筋是指肌肉的无意识强烈收缩,无法获得松弛。肌肉抽筋通常会持续几秒到15分钟的时间。在个别情况下,可能会持续15分钟以上。抽筋可能会重复很多次才会最终消失。抽筋会在不同程度影响肌肉,比如一组肌群,一块单独的肌肉,甚至一块肌肉的某个部分。

Who Can Get A Cramp?

什么人会抽筋?

Cramps are very common not only in athletes, but also in someone who is sedentary all day long. Children and seniors alike can be victim to cramping. Aging is a nasty concept-and unfortunately as you age, your chance of frequent cramping increases.

抽筋不仅仅会影响运动员,甚至连整天坐在椅子上的人也可能抽筋。儿童和老年人也可能成为抽筋的受害者。虽然衰老是令人讨厌的事情,但遗憾的是,随着你逐渐衰老,抽筋的几率也会逐渐上升。

Can All Muscles Cramp?

所有的肌肉都会抽筋吗?

All skeletal muscles can cramp at any given moment. A very common cramp that majority of the population has experienced one time or another occurs with the calf muscle (named a "charley horse"). Most cramps occur in the extremities especially with the legs.

所有的骨骼肌都会在任何时候发生抽筋的状况。大多数人可能都经历过的抽筋可能就是小腿抽筋。多数抽筋都发生在腿部的下肢部位。[page]

Are There Different Types Of Cramps?

抽筋也分很多种吗?

Cramps are classified according to the muscle groups they affect and their different causes. There are four types of skeletal muscle cramps:

抽筋可根据被影响的肌群和其影响的方式而进行分类。主要有4种骨骼肌抽筋:

1. True cramps 真正的抽筋
2. Contractures 挛缩
3. Tetany 搐搦症
4. Dystonic cramps 肌张力异常性抽筋

1. True Cramps: 真正的抽筋

True cramps are caused by hyperexcitability of the nerves of a muscle. They can involve part or a whole muscle group. True cramps are the most common type of skeletal muscle cramp. These types of cramps can occur due to many factors.

真正的抽筋是由于肌肉神经的兴奋过度造成的。这可能影响到部分或整个肌群。真正的抽筋是最常见的骨骼肌抽筋现象。这种现象可能由很多不同的条件造成。

Vigorous Activity: 剧烈运动

When playing sports, muscle fatigue as well as vigorous use of the muscles can cause cramping. These cramps can occur either during or after the activity. Older individuals are at a higher risk for cramping while doing any type of intense physical activities.

当进行体育活动时,肌肉疲劳和肌肉的激烈运动都可能造成抽筋。抽筋可能发生在运动过程中或之后。年长者有更高几率在剧烈身体运动后发生抽筋。

Just the opposite case can also cause muscle cramping. If an individual is lying or even sitting in an awkward position for a long period of time cramping can result.

相反的状况也可能造成肌肉抽筋。如果某个人以不当的姿势躺着甚至坐着一段时间,也可能造成抽筋。

Injury: 受伤

An injury alone can cause cramping. Cramping can occur as a protective mechanism following an injury. In this case, the cramp occurs to stabilize the injury and to minimize movement from that area.

受伤也可能造成抽筋的现象。抽筋可以在受伤后起到保护机制的作用。这种情况下,抽筋会使伤处确保稳定,并限制其行动幅度到最小化。

Dehydration: 脱水

Dehydration is mainly caused by warm weather in which it can be an early sign of something more serious such as heat stroke. Athletes and those individuals who are doing vigorous activities are more likely to become dehydrated due to fluid loss from perspiration.

由于高温天气引起的脱水现象也很可能是中暑之类的严重问题的前兆。运动员们和一些其他人在进行激烈运动时最有可能因为排汗导致身体水分流失。

Bodybuilders are commonly found using products such as diuretics to push out any extra water they are carrying so that their definition will be better on stage. While trying to put out the water, many bodybuilders lower sodium levels so they do not retain any water that they lost. This loss of sodium can cause dehydration and cramping. That is why when someone is cramping, they sometimes give them a salt tablet to take with some water.

健美选手们普遍地使用利尿剂来排除体内水分,以使舞台上的肌肉线条更加清晰。当试图排除身体水分的时候,很多健美选手并不及时补充水分,导致体内钠含量也被降低。钠流失会造成脱水和抽筋。这就是为什么当有人抽筋时,人们有时会给其服用一片盐片就水喝下。

Low Potassium Levels: 钾水平降低

When potassium levels are low, muscles are weakened and muscle cramps can occur. Eating bananas will help keep potassium levels normal so that the chances of cramping are minimized.

当体内钾含量降低,肌肉会被削弱,并导致抽筋。食用香蕉可以帮助保持体内钾水平正常,并使抽筋的几率维持最小化。

Low Blood Calcium, Magnesium: 血液钙、镁元素降低

When there are low levels of calcium or magnesium in the blood, nerve endings and muscles are affected. This can be caused by diuretics, inadequate calcium and magnesium in the diet, inadequate vitamin D in the diet, and excessive vomiting. The excitability of muscles and nerve endings are increased when there are low blood calcium and magnesium levels which cause muscle cramping.

当血液中钙、镁含量降低时,神经末梢和肌肉都会受到影响。这可能是由于服用了利尿剂,减脂期间不足的钙、镁、维生素D摄入,以及大量的呕吐。当血液中钙、镁含量过低时可能刺激到神经末梢和肌肉并使其高度兴奋,从而造成抽筋。[page]

Rest Cramps: 休息抽筋(注:我也不知道这个东西的学名怎么翻译,大家看下面的说明自己领会吧)

Older individuals as well as children can suffer from rest cramps. Rest cramps are mainly experienced during the night. These cramps are disruptive to sleep but are not life-threatening in any way. Rest cramps can happen on any given night and even many times a night.

老年人和儿童可能经历休息抽筋。休息抽筋大多数发生在夜晚。这种抽筋会对睡眠造成影响,但并无生命危险。休息抽筋可能在任何一个夜晚发生,也可能在一晚发生多次。

A common place to experience rest cramps would be in the calf. Rest cramps in the calf at night are due to a shortening of the calf muscle which can happen while lying in bed and pointing your toes down. Even though they understand how you get a cramp in your calf at night, the cause of night cramps is still unknown.

最常发生休息抽筋的部位很可能是小腿。夜间发生的小腿休息抽筋,是当人们躺在床上,脚趾向下方抻而造成小腿肌肉收缩造成的。虽然人们知道了造成夜晚小腿休息抽筋的方法,但始终不知道造成抽筋的原因。

2. Tetany: 搐搦症

Tetany is a type of cramping which activates all of the nerve endings in the body. This then effects the muscles of the body and cramping occurs throughout the body. Tetany cramps also affect other nerve functions of different muscles and areas of the body.

搐搦症是一种激发全身所有神经末梢的抽筋。这会牵扯到全身的肌肉参与抽筋。搐搦症抽筋同时也会影响全身不同肌肉和部位神经系统的其它功能。

For instance, when there is a low blood calcium level in the body (similar to a true cramp), there could be a cramping of the arm yet the individual could also feel tingling and numbness around the mouth or other areas.

比如,当体内钙含量过低(很类似真正的抽筋),则手臂可能产生抽筋,但此人同时也会感到嘴周围或其它部位有针刺和麻痹的感觉。

3. Contractures: 挛缩

Contractures occur when the muscles aren't able to relax. They are caused by the depletion of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is a source of energy within the cell which is used by the muscles to do work. Because of this depletion of ATP in the cell, it does not allow the muscle fiber to relax. This form of muscle spasm occurs without nerve activity. This type of cramp can either be acquired or inherited.

当肌肉无法得到放松时会产生挛缩。这是由于ATP(三磷酸盐腺)耗尽造成的。ATP是一种在细胞内为肌肉提供动力的能源。由于细胞内ATP耗尽,肌肉纤维将无法得到放松。这种形式的肌肉痉挛没有神经系统的干预。后天或先天因素都可能造成这种抽筋。

4. Dystonic Cramps: 肌张力异常性抽筋

Dystonic cramps are where a muscle that is not needed for a movement is contracted. For instance, the cramp would occur with a muscle that is working in the opposite direction of the intended movement. These types of cramps usually effect the smaller muscle groups such as the jaw, eyelids, larynx, etc.

肌张力异常性抽筋,是指当进行某个动作时,不需要用到的肌肉却在收缩。比如,抽筋会发生在运动过程中所用到的肌肉的相反方向的肌肉(注:比如练二头反而三头会抽筋)。这种抽筋通常发生在小肌群,比如下颚、眼皮、喉部等。[page]

What Can Cause Cramping?

什么可以造成抽筋?

There a numerous medicines out there that can cause cramping. One example would be anything containing a diuretic. Individuals with vitamin deficiencies such as thiamine (B1), pantothenic acid (B5), and pyridoxine (B6) can cause cramping.

现在市面上很多药物都可能造成抽筋。比如任何含有利尿剂成分的药。缺乏维生素的人,比如缺乏硫胺(维生素B1)、泛酸(维生素B5)、以及维生素B6,都会造成抽筋。

Symptoms & Diagnosis
症状和诊断

What Are The Symptoms Of Common Muscle Cramps & How Are They Diagnosed?

典型的肌肉抽筋的症状和如何诊断

A cramp is painful and will stop an individual in its tracks until the cramp is taken care of and relieved. During a cramp, the muscle will be tender and will be bulged and firm. The muscle that is cramping will not be able to be used until the cramp is gone. In some cases, sever cramping can cause inflammation and soreness for several days after the cramp occurred.

抽筋会造成疼痛感,并使患者不得不停下当前的动作以处理该部位。在抽筋的过程中,肌肉会变得无力、鼓胀和僵硬。抽筋中的肌肉必须等抽筋消失后才能再次工作。某些情况下,当抽筋停下来后,会在接下来的几天内造成患部发炎和酸痛。

There are no tests for cramps-however, most individuals know when they have a cramp.

虽然没有针对抽筋的具体临床试验,但是当抽筋发生时,绝大多数人都会意识到。

Treatment
治疗

What Is The Treatment For Muscle Cramps?
如何应对肌肉抽筋?

When a muscle cramp occurs, if the muscle can be stretched, the knot will be released and the cramp will go away. In most cases when a cramp is in the lower extremities, by walking around it should loosen the knot in the muscle and the cramp will go away.

当肌肉发生抽筋时,如果可以抻拉肌肉,则可使紧绷的部位得到松弛,抽筋就会消失。多数情况下,当抽筋发生在下肢时,缓慢行走就可以舒缓肌肉并治愈抽筋。

For cramps in the hand and forearm, an individual can release cramp by pressing their hand on a flat surface, which will stretch out the muscles in the hand as well as the forearm.

如果手和前臂抽筋,患者可以用手推压平面,这可以使手部和前臂的肌肉得以伸展,并治愈抽筋。

Another technique to relieve a cramp would be to apply a warm heating pad. If the individual is cramping due to dehydration/fluid loss, ice packs may help relieve the cramp. If dehydration is the cause, the individual should also take in some fluids and electrolytes. Another technique an individual could use to relieve a common muscle cramp would be to massage the effected muscle, which will help the muscle relax and relieve the tension.

另外一个消除抽筋的方法是使用暖水袋。如果患者由于脱水造成抽筋,冰袋则可以帮助消除抽筋。如果是由于脱水,患者应适当补充水分和电解质。另外一个方法是对患处进行按摩,这可以帮助肌肉松弛并缓解僵硬。

There are no medicines prescribed for cramps. Since cramps vary due to situation, there is nothing that can be used to cure cramping when it happens. Also, a cramp comes and goes fairly quickly, therefore the cramp would be gone by the time any medicine would actually kick in.

抽筋没有药物可以治疗。由于发生抽筋的情况不同,没有任何东西可以在人们抽筋时将它治愈。此外,抽筋通常来得快去得快,当抽筋缓解时,任何药物恐怕都还没有被吸收消化就已经结束了。[page]

How Can Muscle Cramps Be Prevented?

如何防止肌肉抽筋?

Activity: 运动抽筋

If you are prone to cramping during exercising, it is best to stretch before and after the activity. It is also smart to warm-up and cool down properly. Also, make sure you are properly hydrated before, during and after the activity.

如果你在锻炼的时候出现抽筋的状况,那么你最好在锻炼开始前和锻炼后进行抻拉活动。预热和冷却动作也很重要。此外,在运动前、运动中和运动后,要补充适量的水份。

Dystonic Cramps: 肌张力异常性抽筋

These types of cramps can be avoided by paying attention to ergonomic factors which could cause the cramping. Another factor to help prevent dystonic cramps would be to avoid excessive tension while performing the activity, which normally causes the cramping.

关注环境变化,即可尽量避免这种抽筋。另外就是避免在运动时过分得紧张,这通常是造成抽筋的原因。

Rest Cramps: 休息抽筋

Rest cramps can help be prevented by making sure you stretch regularly (especially before bed if you suffer from night cramps). It is also important to make sure you have adequate calcium and magnesium levels, which can help prevent night cramps. An additional dose of calcium before bed will suffice and help prevent cramps.

休息抽筋可以用规律性抻拉动作避免,特别是如果你夜晚抽筋,那么在睡前进行伸展运动将避免抽筋的发生。射入足够的钙和镁也有助于避免休息抽筋。每晚睡前一片钙片就足以避免休息抽筋了。

相关热词搜索:肌肉 种类 处理 抽筋 抽筋类型 抽筋处理

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